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Black bears inhabit almost all parts of the Appalachian Trail (A.T.) corridor. Usually, black bears are shy creatures that keep their distance, and seeing one on your hike can be an uncommon thrill. However, there are circumstances when they can be a nuisance or a threat. Learn more about how you (and the bears) can stay safe.


Please Report Any Bear Encounters

Your report will help reduce human/bear conflicts on the A.T. Reported bear incidents will be shared with our land management partners and listed on our Trail Updates page. Please submit a report if a bear:

  • Entered a campsite or shelter area.
  • Attempted to (or did) steal food.
  • Was aggressive toward you, another hiker, or a pet.
  • Damaged property.
  • Was following you while you were hiking.
  • Was acting strangely.


Avoiding Bear Encounters

While attacks on humans are extremely rare, a startled bear or a bear who has received food rewards from humans may react aggressively.

Especially at overnight sites where hikers have been careless about storing food, bears may become habituated and may become aggressive in pursuit of human food. Be aware that bears have an exceptionally keen sense of smell.

While you are hiking the best way to avoid an encounter is letting a bear know you’re there.

  • Make noise by whistling, talking, etc., to give the bear a chance to move away before you get close enough to make it feel threatened.
  • If you encounter a bear and it does not move away, you should
    • Back away.
    • Speak calmly and firmly.
    • Avoid making eye contact.
    • Do not run or “play dead” even if a bear makes a “bluff charge.”

Bear Canister Lending Program – Georgia and Vermont Section Hikers

Bear canisters are the food storage method that provides the most flexibility and surety for camping anywhere along the A.T. – no trees required. If you are planning a backpacking trip in Georgia or Vermont, you can try a bear canister for free through these simple lending programs.



ATC Recommends A.T. Visitors Carry Bear-Resistant Food Storage Containers

The ATC has adopted a new policy recommending all overnight Appalachian Trail visitors carry a bear-resistant food storage container as a vital part of their backpacking gear.



Backcountry Food Storage

When you are in camp the best defense against a bear encounter is preparing and storing food properly:

  • Why use a bear canister.
  • Cook and eat your meals 200 feet away from your tent or shelter, so food odors do not linger.
  • NEVER sleep with your food.
  • Use a bear-resistant personal food storage container to reduce negative human/bear interactions and keep you, your food, and bears safe; here is a list of certified personal food storage containers. There are a number of benefits to carrying a bear-resistant canister.
  • Bear canisters seasonally required for camping between Jarrard Gap and Neel Gap in Georgia. See the Georgia section of our Trail Updates page for more information.
  • Where allowed when you don’t have a bear can, carry all the items necessary for a proper food hang where food storage devices are not provided. Allow 45 minutes at the end of the day to find a suitable tree that is 200 feet from your campsite and cooking area, and to successfully throw a rope over a limb. Your bag should hang 12 feet from the ground, 6 feet below the limb, and 6 feet from the tree’s trunk. Hang not only food but cookware, toothpaste, personal hygiene items, and even water bottles (if you use drink mixes in them).
  • The PCT Method  is the least likely user created food hang to be defeated by bears, but a proper PCT food hang is difficult. Practice at home first!  But beware: Lack of adequate trees, complexity of this method and end of day fatigue cause frequent user hang error, and bears have learned to defeat even the best PCT hangs in a variety of ways along the A.T.

  • Where bear boxes, poles, or cable systems are provided, use them, but don’t count on them. 60% of designated A.T. overnight sites do not provide food storage, and they can be full or damaged. Never leave trash in bear boxes, feed bears, or leave food for them. Know the regulations for food storage before you go.  (In Great Smoky Mts. NP, all food must be hung on the provided cables, including bear canisters.)
  • Do not leave food unattended unless stored in a way that a bear cannot get to it. In other words, do not leave your food at your campsite or on a picnic table while you fetch water, visit the privy, etc. It is essential that you keep your bear can closed and fully locked except when taking food, etc. in or out of the canister.
  • Do not burn food wrappers or leftovers or leave them in fire pits, which may attract bears.  Carry them out.
  • Avoid becoming complacent when storing your food. Just because there have been no reports of bear activity in the area does not mean that bears are not present. All it takes is one food bag that is not hung properly to change a bear’s habits.
  • Improperly stored food may lead to a bear becoming habituated to human food.
  • Aggressive behavior on the part of bears seeking easy food sources may result in damage to personal property, injuries to campers, and ultimately to removal or euthanization of bears.)
  • Whether a bear is fed intentionally or unintentionally, a fed bear is a dead bear.
  • A humorous look on the topic of safely storing food from bears in camp can be found in our video: Where to Store Your Food (so a bear doesn’t eat it)

Encountering a bear in your campsite:

  • A bear that enters a campsite or cooking area should be considered potentially dangerous. Yelling, making loud noises and throwing rocks may make it go away; however, you should be prepared to fight back if necessary. If you are actually attacked by a bear, you should fight for all you are worth with anything at hand.

For more information, visit the Black Bear page of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park.